With integrity, you have nothing to fear, since you have nothing to hide. With integrity, you will do the right thing, so you will have no guilt.

Zig Ziglar, author and speaker

General Tips

Source: Didriksson, S. (n.d.) Ethical use of information: A short introduction: Being ethical means citing your sources! Suffolk University Boston Library Guides. Retrieved from http://suffolk.libguides.com/content.php?pid=337040&sid=2763844

Cite if…

  • You get a quote or idea from a book, eBook, internet site, TV show, newspaper, RSS feed, journal, ad, song, computer app, journal, letter, video, email–anything that did not originate from YOU.
  • Someone tells you something you want to use. If you interview or do an oral history, in person (or by phone or email or text) with someone.
  • You reuse a table, chart, diagram, photograph, illustration, map or other material in a paper or PowerPoint.
  • Anytime you quote someone else’s exact words or copy a “unique phrase” from somewhere.

No need to cite if…

  • You did an experiment or conducted an original survey and are presenting your own results.
  • You are stating “generally accepted facts.”
  • You are incorporating “common knowledge” into your paper — make a common-sense observation, restate an adage or folklore (that is not a direct quotation), use a bit of regional language or slang or other general vernacular saying or phrase.
  • You are simply stating your own thoughts or opinion or insights, or if you are recounting a personal experience, or if you make an original observation or are stating your own conclusion on the topic.

Resources

  • Select APA, MLA, Chicago, etc. – just be consistent throughout your materials. Apply both in-text citations and reference section or endnotes as appropriate.
  • WSU Office of Research Guidelines for Authorship Determination for Manuscripts”: https://research.wsu.edu/office-research/policies/authorship; see also Stanford – Academic Authorship; Harvard Medical School – Authorship Guidelines and USC – Responsible Authorship and Publication (pdf).
  • The Harvard Guide to Using Sources: Avoiding Plagiarism”: https://usingsources.fas.harvard.edu

Citation & Reference Guidelines

Within text: (last name, year, page numbers if known)

Structure: (last name, year, page numbers if known) Example – Direct quote: “A well-conceived communications

Example – Direct quote: “A well-conceived communications audit or communications effectiveness study is an effective management tool that helps target messages, media, and audiences and improves the effectiveness of communications efforts.” (Hollister and Trubow, 2005)

Example – Borrowed idea or concept: Quantitative research is typically used to derive trends and quantifiable data from a given market or source. Common methods include surveys, analytics, and other tools that based on gathering measurable data (Fletcher, 2015).

Article with author and date noted:

Structure: Last, F.M. (Year, Month Date published). Article title. Title of online publication. Retrieved from URL

Example: Williams, J. (2012, May 23). What is internet marketing? Search Engine Journal. Retrieved from https://www.searchenginejournal.com/what-is-internet-marketing/56213/

Article, no author:

Structure: Title of article (Year, Month Date of publication). Title of online publication. Retrieved from URL

Example: All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). MSNBC. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/

Article, no author or date:

Structure: Title of article (n.d.). Title of online publication. Retrieved from URL

Example: Content Marketing Institute (n.d.) Content Marketing Institute. Retrieved from http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/

Website reference only – no author or date:

Structure: Title of web page (n.d.). Title of online publication. Retrieved from URL

Example: Content Marketing Institute (n.d.) Content Marketing Institute. Retrieved from http://contentmarketinginstitute.com/

Blog post:

Structure: Last, F. M. (Year Month Date Published). Article title [Type of blog post]. Retrieved from URL.

Example: Schonfeld, E. (2010, May 3). Google throws $38.8 million to the wind [Web log post]. Retrieved May 4, 2010, from http://techcrunch.com

Example: China, The American Press, and the State Department [Web log post]. (2013, January 3). Retrieved from Schonfeld, E. (2010, May 3). Google throws $38.8 million to the wind [Web log post]. Retrieved May 4, 2010, from http://techcrunch.com

Citing from a YouTube or video file:

Structure: (year, month day). Title of video [Video File]. Retrieved from URL.

Example: [ABC News] (2016, June 1).Criminal probe launched into gorilla incident at Cincinnati Zoo [Video File]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/5-95bFXlpSI

Citing from print publication:

Structure: Last, F.M. (year published). Title of book. City, State of publisher: Publisher name.

Example: Jugenheimer, D.W. and Kelley, L.D. (2010). Advertising Account Planning: Planning and Managing an IMC Campaign, 2nd edition. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Citing an image that is not royalty-free or copyright status is unknown

Structure: Last, F.M. (Photographer). (year published). Title of image [digital image]. Retrieved from URL.

Example: Komar, J. (Photographer). (2017) Ice cream sundae cupcakes. [Digital image]. Retrieved from http://www.delish.com/cooking/recipe-ideas/recipes/a53580/ice-cream-sundae-cupcakes-recipe/

If the image is subject to copyright, it is possible you will get a note from the owner of the image asking you to remove it. That is one of the main reasons we (as faculty) direct students to use royalty-free images. Not only does it limit risk of academic integrity violations, it also prevents the student from receiving “cease and desist”-type emails.

Citing from Social Media Posts:

Instagram: @ handle. (Year, month day posted). First several words of Instagram post (if any)… [Instagram post]. Retrieved from URL

Example: @mercedesbenzliny (2018, Jan 11). Even in freezing temperatures… [Instagram post]. Retrieved from https://www.instagram.com/p/Bd0JJZFg4d1/?tagged=mbphotopass

Twitter: @handle. (Year, month day posted). Full text of tweet. [Twitter post]. Retrieved from URL

Example: @Mercedes-AMG. (2017, Dec 28). Guess this #AMG ride! [Twitter post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/MercedesAMG/status/946513681684287494

Facebook: Lastname, Firstname or page name (Year, month day posted). First several words of Facebook post… [Facebook update]. Retrieved from URL

Example: Fields Motorcars (2015, June 22). It’s all in the details… [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/FieldsMotorcars/photos/…


Additional Resources